The history of United States coinage is a story that parallels the rise of America. Starting from a humble beginning in a basement in Philadelphia in the first few years of the country, it grew to a large highly sophisticated system that produces millions of coins per year. Due to a lack of silver, the first silver coins produced by the Mint came from silverware contributed by George and Martha Washington. Coins are something we take for granted today and put in jars and baskets on our night stands to accumulate for a rainy day when we need a few extra dollars. For more than half of the history of America, that wouldn't have been possible for the average citizen. It wasn't until after the Civil War that coinage became widely used for all types of transactions. Until that time, barter and money substitutes, such as tokens, script, and foreign coins, were used as a mediums of exchange. During the 1830's, and then again during the Civil War, coins were in such short supply that merchants and private individuals began producing cent-sized coins, just to make change for the day to day transactions. In America, it was legal until 1857 to use foreign money in transactions. The Spanish dollars and their fractional parts, called "bits," were very common during colonial times until the mid-1800s.
30 Minute Book SeriesEach book in the "30 Minute Book Series" is fast paced, well written, and accurate for a book that covers the topic in as much detail as a short book allows. In less than an hour, you can read or listen to the book - a perfect companion for a lunch hour or a nice distraction for a train ride home from work.
About the AuthorDoug West is a retired engineer, small business owner, and an experienced non-fiction writer with several books to his credit. His writing interests are general, with special expertise in science, biographies, numismatics, and "How to" topics. Doug has a Ph.D. in General Engineering from Oklahoma State University.
Most historians credit the city-state of Florence as the place that started and developed the Italian Renaissance, a process carried out through the patronage and commission of artists during the late 12th century. If Florence is receiving its due credit, much of it belongs to the Medicis, the family dynasty of Florence that ruled at the height of the Renaissance. The dynasty held such influence that some of its family members even became Pope. Among all of the Medicis, its most famous member ruled during the Golden Age of Florence at the apex of the Renaissance's artistic achievements. Lorenzo de Medici, commonly referred to as Lorenzo the Magnificent, was groomed both intellectually and politically to rule Venice, and he took the reins of power at just 20 years old. Of all the fields that were advanced during the Renaissance, the period's most famous works were art, with iconic paintings like Leonardo's Mona Lisa and timeless sculptures like Michelangelo's David. Thus it is fitting that both Leonardo and Michelangelo were at times members of Lorenzo's court, and the Florentian ruler, who also considered himself an artist and poet, became known for securing commissions for the most famous artists of the age, including the aforementioned legends, Piero and Antonio del Pollaiuolo, Andrea del Verrocchio, Sandro Botticelli and Domenico Ghirlandaio. When Lorenzo died in April 1492, he was buried in a chapel designed by Michelangelo. From the intro:"The origin of the Medici family is lost in the mists of the Middle Ages, and, only here and there, can the historian gain glimpses of the lives of early forbears. Still, there is sufficient data, to be had for the digging, upon which to transcribe, inferentially at least, an interesting narrative.Away towards the end of the twelfth century, - exact dates are wholly beside the mark - there dwelt, under the shadow of one of the rugged castles of the robber-captains of the Mugello in Tuscany, a hard-working and trustworthy bonds-man - one Chiarissimo - "Old Honesty," as we may call him. He was married to an excellent helpmeet, and was by his lord permitted to till a small piece of land and rear his family."
Land and Labor, 1866-1867 examines the remaking of the South's labor system in the tumultuous aftermath of emancipation. Using documents selected from the National Archives, this volume of Freedom: A Documentary History of Emancipation depicts the struggle of unenfranchised and impoverished ex-slaves to control their own labor, establish their families as viable economic units, and secure independent possession of land. Among the topics addressed are the dispossession of settlers in the Sherman reserve, the reordering of labor on plantation and farm, nonagricultural labor, new relations of credit and debt, long-distance labor migration, and the efforts of former slaves to rent, purchase, and homestead land. The documents--many of them in the freed people's own words--speak eloquently for themselves, while the editors' interpretive essays provide context and illuminate major themes.
How to decide when to say "yes" to a credit applicant-without jeopardizing your reputation or your company's bottom line Deciding whether a credit applicant is ultimately creditworthy involves more than just poring over their financial statements-it takes the kind of advice only an experienced credit expert, like Hal Schaeffer, can give. A 28-year veteran of the credit screening process, Schaeffer outlines the nuts-and-bolts of assessing a credit applicant's financial health and ability to make good on a line of credit. In part one's clear, four-part "A, B, C, D" format (A is for Analysis, B is for Building Essential Business Credit Information, C is for Considering All Factors,and D is for Decision), the author examines a prospective borrower from every angle, using formulas, checklists of what to look for, and available outside information sources (from Dun & Bradstreet to the Internet) to get a genuine picture of an applicant's current finances and degree of credit risk. Also outlined are the financial, credit, and business factors that go into a "sound business credit decision" a guideline for consolidating facts to vindicate your decision, as well as a series of twelve chapter-length case studies (contained in part two). Discussion includes:
This three-volume history of England from before the Roman conquest through to the Glorious Revolution of 1688 was originally serialised in Charles Dickens' magazine Household Words between 1851 and 1853. The text was published in book form in the same period, although each volume was post-dated to the following year. Dickens dedicated the work to his own children, intending it to be a stepping stone to more substantial histories. The volumes were popular with readers for decades, and were used in British schools well into the twentieth century. Dickens employs his signature style to bring events and personalities to life, making use of vivid similes, unabashedly partisan language and direct speech, as well as the occasional moral lesson. Volume 1 covers the period up to 1216. Volume 2 continues from Henry III to Richard III. Volume 3 traces events from Henry VII's accession to James II's fall.
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