The history of United States coinage is a story that parallels the rise of America. Starting from a humble beginning in a basement in Philadelphia in the first few years of the country, it grew to a large highly sophisticated system that produces millions of coins per year. Due to a lack of silver, the first silver coins produced by the Mint came from silverware contributed by George and Martha Washington. Coins are something we take for granted today and put in jars and baskets on our night stands to accumulate for a rainy day when we need a few extra dollars. For more than half of the history of America, that wouldn't have been possible for the average citizen. It wasn't until after the Civil War that coinage became widely used for all types of transactions. Until that time, barter and money substitutes, such as tokens, script, and foreign coins, were used as a mediums of exchange. During the 1830's, and then again during the Civil War, coins were in such short supply that merchants and private individuals began producing cent-sized coins, just to make change for the day to day transactions. In America, it was legal until 1857 to use foreign money in transactions. The Spanish dollars and their fractional parts, called "bits," were very common during colonial times until the mid-1800s.
30 Minute Book SeriesEach book in the "30 Minute Book Series" is fast paced, well written, and accurate for a book that covers the topic in as much detail as a short book allows. In less than an hour, you can read or listen to the book - a perfect companion for a lunch hour or a nice distraction for a train ride home from work.
About the AuthorDoug West is a retired engineer, small business owner, and an experienced non-fiction writer with several books to his credit. His writing interests are general, with special expertise in science, biographies, numismatics, and "How to" topics. Doug has a Ph.D. in General Engineering from Oklahoma State University.
The events, more than half of which are newly narrated in this 'History, ' are recited from recollection. It is not pretended that all the conversations took place with the brevity with which they are given here. In the lapse of eight years there is much which I must have forgotten; but what I have told I distinctly remember, and the actors living will not, I think, contradict it. As, by a creditable improvement in English law, the recommencement of prosecutions for (ir)religious opinion can originate with the Attorney-General alone, I have ventured to hope that, if this narrative should fall into the hands of that officer for the time being, it may present some reasons to him why this 'Last Trial by Jury for Atheism' should be the last. There are some passages in these Fragments over which some will be sad with me. Others will assume them to be written for effect; for such, let me say, they were not written at all. These pages will leave me for the press with much more pleasure if I can believe that no one will connect them with me, but read them as a posthumous record of bygone events. At times I thought I would omit all incidents of feeling; but I felt, that if I did so the narrative would not represent the whole (personal) truth of these proceedings-and, as they stand, they may serve to suggest to some a doubt of the correctness of the oft-repeated dictum of the Rev. Robert Hall, that 'Atheism is a bloody and a ferocious system, which finds nothing above us to excite awe, nor around us to awaken tenderness.' Whether these are sufficient reasons for the purpose, I know not; but this I know-they are the true ones. As I very much dislike being an object of pity, those will much mistake me who suppose that this narrative has been written to excite it. In my estimation, imprisonment was a matter of conscience. I neither provoked prosecution nor shrank from it; and I am now as far from desiring it as I trust I ever shall be from fearing it. I do not pretend to despise public approval, but I think it should be regarded as a contingent reward, not as the sole motive of action; for he who only works while the public (always fickle in memory) care to remember him, is animated by a very precarious patriotism.
The gold-standard exploration of architecture's global evolution
A Global History of Architecture provides a comprehensive tour through the ages, spinning the globe to present the landmark architectural movements that characterized each time period. Spanning from 3,500 b.c.e. to the present, this unique guide is written by an architectural all-star team who emphasize connections, contrasts and influences, reminding us that history is not linear and that everything was 'modern architecture' in its day. This new third edition has been updated with new drawings from Professor Ching, including maps with more information and color, expanded discussion on contemporary architecture, and in-depth chapter introductions that set the stage for global views. The all-new onlineÂ enhanced companion siteÂ brings history to life, providing a clearer framework through which to interpret and understand architecture through the ages.
Unique in its non-Eurocentrism, this book provides a fresh survey of architectural history with a truly global perspective, fulfilling the National Architectural Accrediting Board's requirements for 'non-Western' architecture in history education.
Escalating globalization has expanded our perspective of both history and architecture beyond Europe and the U.S. Today's architects are looking far beyond the traditional boundaries, and history shows us that structures' evolution from shelter to art mirrors the hopes and fears of society along the way. A Global History of Architecture takes you inside history itself to witness the the growth and movements that built our world.
<b>All the information you need to extend your credit lines worldwide!</b> <p> As more and more companies expand globally, their credit managers must learn to understand and implement foreign concepts and practices while navigating different cultures and traditions. But working across borders and time zones has its pitfalls and credit managers must be well informed and up-to-date to avoid expensive mistakes and maintain their credit standards. International <b><i>Credit and Collections</i></b> brings together enlightening contributions from international experts to provide complete coverage of important issues and concepts, including: <ul> <li>Country risk, credit insurance, and forfaiting <li>Cultural differences and awareness issues: Latin America, the Pacific Rim, and Europe <li>Collections expectations, issues, and practices <li>Government programs <li>Credit reporting practices: credit applications and letters of credit <li>The Internet and new technology </ul> <p> Whether you are new to the global marketplace, or need to stay up-to-date on new procedures and standards, <b><i>International Credit and Collections</i></b> will help you safely and efficiently take your credit operation global.
First published in 2006. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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