The history of United States coinage is a story that parallels the rise of America. Starting from a humble beginning in a basement in Philadelphia in the first few years of the country, it grew to a large highly sophisticated system that produces millions of coins per year. Due to a lack of silver, the first silver coins produced by the Mint came from silverware contributed by George and Martha Washington. Coins are something we take for granted today and put in jars and baskets on our night stands to accumulate for a rainy day when we need a few extra dollars. For more than half of the history of America, that wouldn't have been possible for the average citizen. It wasn't until after the Civil War that coinage became widely used for all types of transactions. Until that time, barter and money substitutes, such as tokens, script, and foreign coins, were used as a mediums of exchange. During the 1830's, and then again during the Civil War, coins were in such short supply that merchants and private individuals began producing cent-sized coins, just to make change for the day to day transactions. In America, it was legal until 1857 to use foreign money in transactions. The Spanish dollars and their fractional parts, called "bits," were very common during colonial times until the mid-1800s.
30 Minute Book SeriesEach book in the "30 Minute Book Series" is fast paced, well written, and accurate for a book that covers the topic in as much detail as a short book allows. In less than an hour, you can read or listen to the book - a perfect companion for a lunch hour or a nice distraction for a train ride home from work.
About the AuthorDoug West is a retired engineer, small business owner, and an experienced non-fiction writer with several books to his credit. His writing interests are general, with special expertise in science, biographies, numismatics, and "How to" topics. Doug has a Ph.D. in General Engineering from Oklahoma State University.
A History of Anthropology as a Holistic Science defends the holistic scientific approach by examining its history, which is in part a story of adventure, and its sound philosophical foundation. It shows that activism and the holistic scientific approach need not compete with one another. This book discusses how anthropology developed in the nineteenth century during what has been called the Second Scientific Revolution. It emerged in the United States in its holistic four field form from the confluence of four lines of inquiry: the British, the French, the German, and the American. As the discipline grew and became more specialized, a tendency of divergence set in that weakened its holistic appeal. Beginning in the 1960s a new movement arose within the discipline which called for abandoning science as anthropology's mission in order to convert into an instrument of social change; a redefinition which weakens its effectiveness as a way of understanding humankind, and which threatens to discredit the discipline.
A foundling of mysterious parentage brought up by Mr Allworthy on his country estate, Tom Jones is deeply in love with the seemingly unattainable Sophia Western, the beautiful daughter of the neighbouring squire â€“ though he sometimes succumbs to the charms of the local girls.
How to decide when to say "yes" to a credit applicant-without jeopardizing your reputation or your company's bottom line Deciding whether a credit applicant is ultimately creditworthy involves more than just poring over their financial statements-it takes the kind of advice only an experienced credit expert, like Hal Schaeffer, can give. A 28-year veteran of the credit screening process, Schaeffer outlines the nuts-and-bolts of assessing a credit applicant's financial health and ability to make good on a line of credit. In part one's clear, four-part "A, B, C, D" format (A is for Analysis, B is for Building Essential Business Credit Information, C is for Considering All Factors,and D is for Decision), the author examines a prospective borrower from every angle, using formulas, checklists of what to look for, and available outside information sources (from Dun & Bradstreet to the Internet) to get a genuine picture of an applicant's current finances and degree of credit risk. Also outlined are the financial, credit, and business factors that go into a "sound business credit decision" a guideline for consolidating facts to vindicate your decision, as well as a series of twelve chapter-length case studies (contained in part two). Discussion includes:
As the new title reflects, Palmer s A History of Europe in the Modern World maintains its well-established historical authority, while focusing more specifically on Europe s prominent role in modern global exchanges, nation building, transnational commercial systems, colonial empires, and cultural transitions. Combining concise accounts of specific nations and national differences with a wide-ranging, comparative analysis of international events, this updated edition of a classic text carefully examines the whole modern history of Europeans and their perpetually changing societies."
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